Beauty ideals may contribute to racial oppression. For example, a prevailing idea in American culture has been that black features are less attractive or desirable than white features.
The idea that blackness was ugly was highly damaging to the psyche of African Americans, manifesting itself as internalized racism. Mixed race children are often perceived to be more attractive than their parents because their genetic diversity protects them from the inherited errors of their individual parents. A common way to measure outer beauty, as based on community consensus, or general opinion, is to stage a beauty pageant , such as Miss Universe.
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Inner beauty, however, is more difficult to quantify, though beauty pageants often claim to take this into consideration as well. A strong indicator of physical beauty is "averageness", or "koinophilia". When images of human faces are averaged together to form a composite image, they become progressively closer to the "ideal" image and are perceived as more attractive. This was first noticed in , when Francis Galton, cousin of Charles Darwin, overlaid photographic composite images of the faces of vegetarians and criminals to see if there was a typical facial appearance for each.
When doing this, he noticed that the composite images were more attractive compared to any of the individual images. Researchers have replicated the result under more controlled conditions and found that the computer generated, mathematical average of a series of faces is rated more favorably than individual faces.
Another feature of beautiful women that has been explored by researchers is a waist-to-hip ratio of approximately 0. Physiologists have shown that this ratio accurately indicates most women's fertility. Weight and skin color often govern attractiveness in a way dependent on one's culture [ 10 ] Beauty is not solely limited to the female gender. This is distinct from the idea of being metrosexual, which focuses mainly on the behavior of men in traditionally feminine ways. The origin of such a preference is uncertain but it clearly exists even today.
Inner beauty is a concept used to describe the positive aspects of something that is not physically observable. While most species use physical traits and pheromones to attract mates, some humans claim to rely on the inner beauty of their choices. Qualities including kindness, sensitivity, tenderness or compassion, creativity and intelligence have been said to be desirable since antiquity. Beauty presents a standard of comparison, and it can cause resentment and dissatisfaction when not achieved. People who do not fit the "beauty ideal" may be ostracized within their communities.
The television sitcom Ugly Betty portrays the life of a girl faced with hardships due to society's unwelcoming attitudes toward those they deem unattractive. However, a person may also be targeted for harassment because of their beauty. Researchers have found that good looking students get higher grades from their teachers than students with an ordinary appearance. One study found that people low in physical attractiveness earn 5 to 10 percent less than ordinary looking people, who in turn earn 3 to 8 percent less than those who are considered good looking. Augustine said of beauty "Beauty is indeed a good gift of God; but that the good may not think it a great good, God dispenses it even to the wicked.
Ugliness is a property of a person or thing that is unpleasant to look upon and results in a highly unfavorable evaluation. To be ugly is to be aesthetically unattractive, repulsive, or offensive. Although ugliness is normally viewed as a visible characteristic, it can also be an internal attribute. For example, an individual could be outwardly attractive but inwardly thoughtless and cruel. It is also possible to be in an "ugly mood," which is a temporary, internal state of unpleasantness.
If you wish to disable cookies, you may do so through your individual browser options. More detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers can be found at the browsers' respective websites. Contents 1 Areas of expertise 2 Well-known make-up artists 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Areas of expertise Fashion Make-up : Fashion make-up is used in magazine photography as well as on the fashion runway.
This branch of make-up design is often highly stylized and is usually focused on making the model or actor look as attractive as possible. Theatrical Make-up : Stage make-up is used as a method in conjunction with stage lighting to highlight the actors' faces in order make expressions visible to the audience from moderate distances. This often includes defining the eyes and lips as well as the highlights and lowlights of the facial bones. High Definition : This strategy for filming offers a new challenge to make-up artists; the extremely sharp resolution of the filming technique requires a new level of coverage needed on a person's face in order to minimize flaws.
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